New publication: Sustainable Web Design by Tom Greenwood

18th February 2021

An interview with Tom Greenwood from Wholegrain Digital in London.

Tom, congratulations on the release of your new book Sustainable Web Design! Great that you are willing to answer some of our questions here. Let’s start with at the beginning: when and why did you come up with the need for this book?

It has been in my head for a few years as our team has been getting deeper and deeper into web sustainability. I became acutely aware of the paradox that on the one hand the digital sector is always looking to the future and on the other hand, sustainability is almost never mentioned. There seemed to be a blind faith that digital technology is at best good for the environment (which it can be), or at worst has no environmental impact at all. And yet digital technology is one of the fastest growing sectors in terms of energy consumption globally with no sign of slowing down. 

So the book project started in mid-2019 as a way to help raise awareness and establish sustainability as a topic that the web design community takes seriously. 

What would you describe as the main difference between other well-known books in this field, like for instance Designing for Sustainability by Tim Frick?

Firstly, Tim’s book is excellent and I highly recommend it. There are a few key differences but I think the main thing is that by virtue of having written this a few years later, I have been able to introduce examples, tools and actions that were not available before. I wrote my book with A Book Apart, who specialise in concise books to introduce topics, so it’s also a fairly quick read to get people started on their journey. 

Another good book is Gerry McGovern’s World Wide Waste, which looks at the big picture of waste across the spectrum of the digital sector to highlight the scale of the problem, whereas my book is specifically focussed on web design and written for people working on web design and development projects.

I know you have been doing a lot of work to help create more light-weight open-source WordPress-themes, could you tell a bit more about that and explain how that aspect features in your book?

Yes, so WordPress is the world’s most popular content management system and has many great qualities, but it is not inherently very energy efficient. This is partly by virtue of it being a dynamic CMS, and partly due to the huge ecosystem of themes are plugins, that are great at delivering functionality, but can lead to bloated websites if you’re not careful.

So our team at Wholegrain have spent the last few years exploring opportunities to squeeze ever higher amounts of efficiency out of WordPress, through a combination of a well optimised hosting platform, super optimized code, and highly optimized assets. Our open source development framework called Granola is structured in a way that makes efficient, modular development easier, and has build tools designed to ensure everything is as optimised as possible. It is the basis for everything that we build for our clients, and is available for anyone else to use in their projects too.

In my book, I look at a range of practical actions that can be taken in design, development and hosting of websites to make them more energy efficient, not just for WordPress but for any web platform.

Wholegrain Digital is a member of the B Corp community. How much awareness is there in the community about the impact of (non)sustainable web design?

Very little, but it is growing. B Corps is an amazing community full of people who are genuinely passionate about using business as a force for good and there are many really pioneering companies pushing boundaries in sustainable business. However, like the rest of society and even the digital sector, digital sustainability has been something that most people still don’t know is an issue. 

This is illustrated quite nicely in EcoPing’s B Corp league table for digital sustainability. It is only a small snapshot of the total B Corp community, but it highlights how even companies committed to sustainable practices are often unaware of their digital impact. That is starting to change and we are seeing a lot more discussion about it in the community recently, which is encouraging.

Do you expect it will become a criterion in the future that will bring extra or even necessary marks in order to be able to cross the application threshold for membership of B Corp?

That would be my hope. The B Impact Assessment (BIA) is very rigorous, but that rigour means that it can be slow to adapt to new criteria. We have been gently nudging B Lab, the non-profit behind the B Corp certification process, to include digital sustainability. It hasn’t happened yet, but I’m hopeful that it is just a matter of time.

That said, at Wholegrain we have led the way in trying to quantify website emissions, through our tool Website Carbon, as well as more tailored variants of it that we can use in-house. This has enabled us to benchmark environmental performance of websites and demonstrate reduced impact, which we do now score points for in the BIA under the product and services section.

Let’s wrap up with one final question about the last chapter of your book. Would you be willing to explain how you see that climate change will impact the internet itself?

Yes, I think it is important that we don’t just think about how the internet impacts the environment, but also how the environment impacts the internet. Our societies are increasingly dependent on web based services and while that can have many benefits, it also creates a vulnerability. 

Extreme weather events such as wildfires and hurricanes are already far more common than a few decades ago and this will continue to intensify, yet it is during these disasters that we need the internet more than ever, for communication and information. Designing web services to maximise resilience to these types of events can help ensure that web services are available at the times when people need them the most.

There is also a wider set of climate change related risks to the infrastructure of the web too. Data center energy consumption is heavily impacted by cooling demand, which will only increase in a warming climate, while many of the world’s major data hubs and networks are in areas at risk of coastal flooding in years to come as sea levels rise.

Once again, as an industry that spends so much time looking to the future, we need to also look ahead and see the risks presented by climate change so that we can manage them proactively.

Tom, thank you very much for your time, and we hope with you that book will inspire people to rethink their digital strategies in the light of speed, efficiency and Climate change!

René Post, co-founder The Green Web Foundation

The Pedagogy of Sustainable Web Design (part 2)

17th June 2020

by Denis F. Doyon, Samadhi Web Design

Read part 1

Green webhosting

Large data centers also lease space to hosting providers, companies like GoDaddy, BlueHost and HostGator that provide server space and support for both large and small websites.  Of the top 20 webhosts globally (Global Web Hosting Market Share October 2019), only two — 1&1 Ionos and Hetzner Online AG, both based in Europe — use 100% renewable energy (The Green Web Foundation, Directory, n.d.).

The Green Web Foundation’s mission is to expand that number by increasing transparency. Media educators and students who maintain personal or professional websites can enter their URL into the Green Web Foundation’s Green Web Check tool and find out if the webhost uses 100% renewable energy (The Green Web Foundation, Is your website hosted green?, n.d.)  If not, website owners are encouraged to share the results on social media to nudge the hosting provider to clean up its act. 

I have used the Green Web Foundation’s directory to find green webhosts for my clients’ sites, and my own.  But what exactly is a “green webhost”?  A recent experience provides an illustration. 

When a recent client specified green hosting for a new website I was developing for him, I recommended DreamHost.  I had opened my own DreamHost account several years ago, impressed by the company’s commitment to reducing their environmental impact.  A page on DreamHost’s website described their green initiatives, including LEED Platinum facilities, data centers that partnered with clean wind programs, and purchases of carbon credits to offset 100% of the company’s electricity use.  Because DreamHost was listed in the Green Web Foundation’s directory, I could display a “green hosted” badge on my client’s new website.

So I was surprised when a few months after launching my client’s site I found that the badge, complete with a green smiley-face, had been replaced by a grey sad-face badge signifying “not hosted green”.  What had happened?  The Green Web Foundation told me that they no longer considered DreamHost a green webhost because they no longer purchased green energy.  But when I visited DreamHost’s “We Are Green” page again I found the same eco-friendly language: “We’re making a conscious effort to reduce our impact on the environment, with optimized facilities and policies that put respect for natural resources at the core of what we do.” (“Green Hosting from DreamHost”, n.d.)

I put on my media literacy thinking cap and looked closer.  I noticed that the commitment to purchase carbon credits was gone, replaced by a statement that DreamHost’s data centers are “powered by grids that obtain electricity from many renewable sources.”  This sounds good, but most major electrical grids in the United States obtain at least some energy from renewable sources, so practically any data center in the US can use this claim. 

I contacted DreamHost and learned that the company now leases space from Amazon Web Services (AWS), the world’s largest cloud computing company.  This is a good example of the widespread migration from in-house data centers to hyperscale centers.  Greenpeace has charged AWS with having a deceptive posture on renewables.  For example, it says that while Amazon Web Services is committed to using 100% renewable energy, it has greatly expanded its data center in Northern Virginia even though the local electric utility has not been able to provide any additional renewable energy (Hill, 2019).  I confirmed that the data center in this dispute is used by DreamHost, so perhaps my client’s site is hosted there.

“We stopped purchasing carbon credits,” the DreamHost representative explained to me, “when we realized that we could do a lot to be a more environmentally-friendly organization without necessarily being carbon-neutral.”  That sounded like PR-speak to me.  True, using power-efficient processors and installing recycling bins in every office, as DreamHost reports, will help a company be more environmentally friendly, but if the company is not carbon-neutral and isn’t powered by renewable energy, can it really claim to be a “green host”? 

This is an excellent example of how media literacy skills can be integrated into coursework on new technologies.  Whether students are investigating the economic, social and cultural impacts of new technology, or learning how to use digital technology tools in hands-on skills-based courses, they can be encouraged to look more closely at the environmental impact of digital technology and the sustainability claims of providers. 

Sustainable web design

Using a webhost powered by 100% renewable energy is one important factor in website sustainability, but it’s not the only one.  An emerging concept is sustainable web design.  The idea is that good design can reduce the amount of data traveling between the user and the webhost, and thus reduce carbon emissions throughout the system, from the data center to the office computer or mobile phone.

Today, the average size of a webpage is 3.48MB, which is more than 24 times the size it was in 2003 (Manoverboard Inc., n.d.).  As the speed of internet connections has increased, web designers have been able to use more data-intensive content, like full-screen photos and streaming video.   But more data served means more electrical energy used, and more carbon emissions generated.  Each site may generate only 1 or 2 grams of CO2 every time a user visits, but with 200 million active websites on the internet and the busiest sites getting hundreds of millions of hits per month, the carbon emissions add up. 

Beyond choosing a green webhost, specialists have outlined three other strategies for reducing the carbon emissions associated with a website (MightyBytes, Inc., n.d.):

1. Reducing the number of clicks (and thus page loads) for each user.  This includes search engine optimization (SEO) so that users find your site quickly, and clear and efficient site navigation, so that users don’t have to wander around your website to find what they’re looking for.

2. Creating lightweight pages (so that fewer bytes are served) by using a mobile-first design approach, resizing and compressing images, and avoiding data hogs like Flash.

3. Improving page loading speed by implementing caching, minifying CSS and Javascript files, using shared code libraries, and other tech tricks. 

I already use these techniques in my work to create websites that work well for site visitors and thus for my clients.  My clients want sites that rank high in search results (good SEO), and they want site pages to load quickly and work perfectly on mobile phones.  Only recently have I learned that these elements of good web design can also help reduce their site’s carbon footprint. 

Educators in skills-based web design courses can easily integrate these concepts into student assignments.  Students can build sample websites, and then measure the carbon emissions they generate using online tools at or  As students learn more advanced techniques (caching, compressing images, etc.) they can use the same tools to measure their carbon savings.  The goal could be to design a website with no more than 0.5 grams of CO2 per page view.

Designing a greener future

My research uncovered some sobering facts — like the explosive growth of Big Data, and the amount of CO2 emitted when I watch a movie on Netflix.  But it also gave me encouragement.  I learned how I could make a difference in my own work, by recommending truly green webhosts for my clients, following sustainable website design practices, and supporting and publicizing grassroots projects to reduce the internet’s carbon footprint.  Educators can use the same ideas to encourage students to investigate the environmental impact of new media technology while they learn technological skills.

The climate crisis makes this imperative.  In every human endeavor – including the creation of media products — we must examine the environmental consequences of our actions and take small but important steps toward a more sustainable future.

This article was first published in The Journal of Sustainability Education, 29 April 2020.

Online resources mentioned in this article: – Greenpeace campaign calling on major internet companies to power their data centers on renewable energy.  Includes a tool displaying whether popular online services are powered by renewable energy. – Tool to assess individual websites on sustainable website design. – A manifesto for sustainable web design. – Resources for sustainable web design. – Includes a Green Web Check tool revealing whether an individual website is hosted on a server using 100% renewable energy, and a global directory of green webhosts. – Tool estimating the carbon footprint of individual websites.


Andrae, A. S. G., & Edler, T. (2015, April 30). On Global Electricity Usage of Communication Technology: Trends to 2030. Retrieved from

Belkhir, L. (2019, June 18). How smartphones are heating up the planet. Retrieved from

Global data center storage capacity 2016-2021. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Global Web Hosting Market Share October 2019. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2019, from

Green Chemistry vs Toxic Technology: The Problem With Electronics. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Green Hosting from DreamHost. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Greenpeace (2017). Clicking clean: Who is winning the race to build a green internet?  Retrieved from

Hill, J. S. (2019, February 15). Greenpeace & Amazon Trade Blows Over 100% Renewable Energy Claims. CleanTechnica. Retrieved from

Jones, N. (2018, September 12). How to stop data centres from gobbling up the world’s electricity. Retrieved October 26, 2019, from

Manoverboard Inc. (n.d.). #ServingGreen. Retrieved from

MightyBytes, Inc. (n.d.). Sustainable Web Design: Resources for building a cleaner, greener internet.  Retrieved from

Muntean, M., Guizzardi, D., Schaaf, E., Crippa, M., Solazzo, E., Olivier, J., & Vignatti, E. (2018). Fossil CO2 emissions of all world countries – 2018 Report. Publications Office of the European Union.

The Green Web Foundation (n.d.). Directory. Retrieved October 27, 2019, from

__ (n.d.) Is your website hosted green? Retrieved October 20, 2019, from

Notes for Greening Internet governance at EURODig

12th June 2020

AT the Green Web Foundation, we’ve been building open source software and publishing open data, to help with working towards a more sustainable web, but there are other levers for change too. Here’s Chris Adams, with our contribution to EURODig – the European Dialogue on Internet Governance, and the panel Towards A Sustainable Governance of the Internet:

On the session Greening Internet governance – Environmental sustainability and digital transformation, we each have an opening statement before we move to a panel discussion exploring the themes listed in the wiki.

I’ve listed my one here, largely for people who couldn’t make it, but also in case I forget anything in the two and half minutes I have available.:

I’m an organiser of, and one of the directors of the green web foundation. I’m going to use my time to outline three things I think are necessary for a sustainable internet. I’m also going to mention energy a lot because the main driver around climate change when we talk about the internet is from burning fossil fuels to generate energy for both the running of the internet, and creating the hardware we use to access the internet. Anyway on with the three things I’d want you to take away from this session:

1) It should be trivial to trust that infrastructure is using green energy. It’s worth investing time in how we can do this, as have lots of the pieces of the puzzle for doing so already. For example we use lots of these pieces (like DNS and HTTPS) to trust that a domain name points to a given set of servers, that are running in a specific place in the world already, and this idea can be applied when we talk how we power digital infrastructure too.

In the energy world, it’s worth knowing that we already issue certificates for guaranteeing the energy came from renewable sources in the energy sector. There are lots of parallels between relying on certificates and cryptography, and a well established governance process to trust that websites are running on the infrastructure we think it’s running on, and between relying on certificates, and governance to trust that infrastructure is generating green power.

I don’t have time to go into the complexities of this, but this would be a good start towards understanding the link between the digital world, and the physical world powering it.

2) I think it’s a mistake to to shift the responsibility onto end users for the carbon footprint of using the internet.

Right now, specialists with intimate knowledge of how the internet is built have a hard time calculating the environmental impact of digital activities online. As such, I think it’s unrealistic to expect end most users to know and act on this – and shifting the burden to end users echoes how we often miss the systemic factors when we talk about sustainability, in general.

Also, digital services often replace more much more carbon intensive activity, like having a video call to replace flying to a conference.

From a governance point of view, it’s easier to spend time and money incentivising a small number of actors upstream, like people who make digital services, to work to accelerate a shift to green, decarbonised grid.

This will be easier than teaching hundreds of millions of end users downstream about changing their browsing habits to take into account the complexities of the internet.

3) Finally, I think we need to use public procurement as a lever in many cases, and there needs to be to policy actively not buy from providers who are still invested in fossil fuels, and not taking steps to green their infrastructure.

We can look to success stories in web accessibility movement for inspiration here.

Drawing clear lines in the sand around the WCAG meant that the people who build digital services had to take accessibility seriously if they wanted that nice fat public sector contract.

It stopped being a nice to have and become something non-negotiable.

This meant that government services which should be available to everyone were newly accessible to millions, and it helped grow the field of inclusive design.

In the same way that a habitable planet is more than just a nice to have, I think an internet running from green power, and and made from devices that were manufactured using green power, is more than a nice to have. And using policy around how public money is spent to speed this along is an important lever we should be using.

At the Green Web Foundation, we use open source software and open datasets to to help people understand how the digital infrastructure they use is powered, and speed a transition to a green internet.

If you’re interested in working with us, see the services we offer, learn how you can partner up with us, or check out the free tools and data we produce.